Archive for the ‘Istorie’ Category

Dincolo de maretia peisajului, menita sa taie pur si simplu respiratia privitorului, Ceahlaul a intrat si a ramas insa in istorie datorita misterelor care il inconjoara. Departe de a a egala prin inaltime alte piscuri din tara, masivul poate fi totusi vazut, in zile senine si in anumite conditii de luminozitate a soarelui, de pe tarmul Marii Negre aflat la aproape 500 de kilometri distanta, sau de pe malul la fel de indepartat al Nistrului.La orele rasaritului, deasupra Ceahlaului se produc jocuri de lumini unice si inexplicabile. Localnicii vad deseori aparitii misterioase pe cer si descopera pe pasunile din jur cercuri perfect trasate, pe care le pun pe seama altor fiinte din Univers. Cei din vechime considerau muntele ca fiind salas al zeului Zamolxis, iar cei de astazi spun ca masivul este strabatut de cea mai puternica axa energetica a globului pamântesc.

Salasul zeilor comparat cu Muntele Athos

Geograful antic grec, Strabon, povestea in scrierile sale despre muntele sfânt Kogaion, unde traia marele preot Zamolxis, devenit, mai apoi, zeu suprem al dacilor locuitori pe acele meleaguri.Legenda spune ca Dochia, fiica lui Decebal , a ales drept loc de refugiu din calea romanilor acelasi Ceahlau al zeului Zamolxis. impresurata de ostile imparatului Traian, ea s-a rugat divinitatii si  s-a prefacut in stana de piatra. Stânca Dochiei strajuieste si astazi masivul, fiind considerata de unii cercetatori ca fiind o creatie a mâinii omenesti, asemeni Sfinxului.
Martial povesteste despre „muntele cel faimos din tara hyperboreenilor (identificati a fi stramosii nostri daci –n.r.) unde zeii olimpici se legasera cu juramânt in fata altarului cel mare sa lupte contra gigantilor”. La spusele grecului se adauga o legenda care circula si azi printre localnicii de la poalele Ceahlaului si care istoriseste ca plaiurile acestuia au fost locuite cândva „de un neam de uriasi, grozav de inalti si de tari, care au fost in cele din urma infrânti de urgia cereasca”. Cercetarile arata ca, poate deloc intâmplator, aici s-a facut reala tranzitie intre religia pagâna si crestinismul de la noi, pe Ceahlau fiind ridicate unele din primele altare crestine din tara noastra. Astazi,  prin numarul impresionant de biserici si de manastiri inaltate pe cuprinsul lui, Ceahlaul este considerat drept al doilea munte sfânt al crestinatatii ortodoxe, dupa Athos. si poate ca acest lucru nu a fost deloc intâmplator. Poate ca primii crestini din tara noastra s-au conformat unei porunci biblice in care li se spunea sa ridice, pe Ceahlaul considerat sfânt,  locuri de inchinare catre Dumnezeu. Fiindca in Biblie, Dumnezeu i s-a aratat lui Ghedeon si i-a spus sa ridice altarul Sau pe stâncile muntelui, in locul altarului lui Baal si-al stâlpului acestuia de inchinaciune (Judecatori -6, 25). Astazi, pe Ceahlaul zilelor noastre, una din frumusetile naturale admirata cu prisosinta de turisti este locul numit Altarul lui Ghedeon, sau Piatra Lata a lui Ghedeon. Iar numele strabun al Ceahlaului este Pion, sau Peon, cuvânt care provine din greaca veche si care, in traducere, inseamna „casa stâlpului” –cu referire la stâlpii de tip obelisc, pe care anticii ii ridicau ca locuri de inchinare la zei.

Holograme ciudate si aparitii luminoase inexplicabile

Ceahlaul nu se ridica, nici pe departe, la altitudinea altor piscuri muntoase din România sau din tarile vecine. Cu toate acestea, in mod paradoxal, el este singurul masiv care poate fi vazut de la sute de kilometri departare. in anumite conditii atmosferice si de luminozitate solara, piscurile Ceahlaului se zaresc cu o deosebita claritate de pe tarmul Marii Negre si de pe malurile Nistrului. Gheorghe Asachi scria despre acest fenomen inca din anul 1859: „Corabierul de pe Marea Neagra vede piscul cel inalt al acestui munte, de la Capul Mangaliei si pâna la Cetatea Alba. Locuitorul de pe tarmul Nistrului vede soarele apunând dupa masa acestui munte, iar pastorul nomad, dupa ce si-a iernat turmele sale pe câmpiile Bugeacului, se intoarce catre casa având in vedere vârful Pionului, sau Ceahlaului”. Acesta nu este, insa, singurul lucru uimitor care se leaga de existenta masivului muntos. Pe Ceahlau se petrec an de an, cu regularitate, doua fenomene optice inexplixabile. in prima decada a lunii august, sub lumina rasaritului de soare, umbrele vârfurilor Toaca si Piatra Ciobanului formeaza, timp de peste o ora si jumatate, o holograma naturala imensa, având forma unei piramide perfecte. Din acest motiv, fenomenul a fost denumit Umbra Piramidei. Tot in aceeasi perioada a anului si tot la rasaritul soarelui, deasupra vârfului Toaca se produce un fenomen optic care dureaza doar câteva minute si pe care localnicii l-au numit, inca din vechime, Calea Cerului. Practic, deasupra muntelui se formeaza un stâlp de o luminozitate intensa si stranie, care se pierde in imensitatea cerului si care este marginit pe laturi de doua benzi intunecate. Unii cercetatori ai respectivelor fenomene sunt de parere ca acestea se datoreaza faptului ca prin Ceahlau, respectiv prin vârful Toaca, trece una din axele energetice ale globului pamântesc.

Varful Toaca, o piramida cu baza patrata
La aceasta teorie trebuie adaugat ca vârful Toaca reprezinta el insusi un mister. Acesta are aspectul unei piramide cu baza patrata, figura considerata a se forma extrem de rar in mod natural. Masuratorile efectuate de specialisti au aratat ca laturile bazei au exact dublul lungimii piramidei lui Keops, din Egipt, iar unghiul pantelor este cu doar 10 grade mai mare decât cel al aceleiasi piramide. Acest lucru ar fi putut fi catalogat doar ca o simpla si intâmplatoare coincidenta, daca la numai 30 de kilometri distanta de Ceahlau nu ar fi fost descoperita celebra cultura Cucuteni, datând din perioada anilor 4.800 inainte de Hristos. Printre vestigiile scoase la iveala s-au gasit nenumarate obiecte din ceramica, ce aveau imprimate proiectii in plan ale unor piramide cu baza patrata si cu diagonalele perfect trasate. in zilele noastre, localnicii din zona Ceahlaului sunt, frecvent, martori ai unor fenomene inexplicabile cu care, deja, s-au obisnuit. Tit Tihon este  renumit profesor de matematica in Roman si autor al unor carti de specialitate, deci o persoana  a carui credibilitate poate fi pusa greu la indoiala. Originar din Bicaz, localitate aflata la poalele masivului Ceahlau, el se afla in vizita la parinti si a fost martorul unei aparitii luminoase pe cer, chiar in noaptea revelionului acestui an. Profesorul Tihon a surprins fenomenul cu ajutorul unui telefon mobil dotat cu camera foto, insa imaginea de o calitate extrem de slaba nu le-a permis specialistilor, ulterior, sa stabileasca daca este vorba de un obiect neidentificat aflat in zbor sau de o simpla reflexie optica. Alti localnici declara, cu mâna pe inima, ca vad deseori fâsii de lumina strabatând padurile Ceahlaului. Calugarii de la Schitul Durau fac afirmatii asemanatoare, sustinând ca vad, in miez de noapte, când se duc la rugaciune, ploi de luminite albastre pogorându-se deasupra piscurilor muntelui. Ei spun ca acest lucru este harul lui Dumnezeu, care ii indeamna la credinta pe monahii tuturor manastirilor ce impânzesc masivul Ceahlau.

Zona Ceahlaului, vizitata de extraterestri

In vara acestui an, la Trifesti, localitate aflata in zona in care poalele Ceahlaului se pierd pe coame de dealuri, au aparut peste noapte nu mai putin de cinci cercuri perfect trasate pe islaz, sub forma unor inele, fiecare având, cu o regularitate uimitoare, diametrul de 20 de metri si grosimea de 50 de centimetri. Incredintati ca satul lor fusese vizitat de OZN-uri, oamenii locului si-au facut cruce, apoi au chemat autoritatile si specialistii in domeniu. La fata locului au venit reprezentanti ai Agentiei pentru Protectia Mediului si ai organizatiei “Romanian UFO Network”. Acestia au luat probe ale solului ars, au facut masuratori, analize si fotografii, insa nu au reusit sa dea o explicatie plauzibila fenomenului. Faptul a fost catalogat ca inexplicabil, la fel cum au fost, sunt si inca vor fi catalogate toate celelalte fenomene care fac din Ceahlau si din imprejurimile sale un veritabil tarâm al misterelor de nepatruns.

Anunțuri

Un sat numit Tartaria

Posted: 1 Noiembrie 2011 in Cotidian, Dacia, Istorie, Stiri
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Dupa ce parasesti Sebesul, pe soseaua spre Orastie, la 6-7 km, printre colnicele dulci ale Podisului Transilvan, în depresiunea râului Strei, un drum secundar, spre stânga, te duce într-o localitate cu nume ciudat, desprins din legenda si mit, Tartaria (com. Saliste).

O bruma de case nu foarte aratoase, de-a lungul ulitei principale, si alte câteva raspândite printre lanuri de porumb si fânete, strajuite de pomi fructiferi, nu spun mai nimic în plus despre aceasta asezare, satul Tartaria fiind asemenea altor sute de localitati rurale românesti. „Satul nost, asta pe care îl vedeti, este vatra mai noua, vechea Tartarie – dupa cum povesteau mosii – aflându-se dincolo de sosea si de calea ferata, unde e santierul arheologic” – ne spune, cu voce calda si plina de miere, Ioan Lupu, un batrân la 80 de ani, drept ca bradul si mândru ca stejarul în costumu-i taranesc dominat de alb si negru, asa cum sta bine vârstei si omului cumpanit. „Pe-acolo, prin vale, si pâna aici, unde începi sa urci dealul, era o mândrete de asezare, care – zice-se – colcaia de viata, mosii si stramosii nostri, Dumnezeu stie pâna la ce vita, poate pâna la Adam, ocupându-se cu olaritul si cu fieraritul… Asa spuneam mosii, care stiau de la mosii lor, ca aici erau multe cuptoare si ateliere pentru ars pamântul si pentru topit si prelucrat metalele, si era asa o caldura în hangaralele alea ca gândeai ca te afli în Iad, în Tartar, de unde ar veni si numele satului nost… Sigur, ocupatia asta cu lucrul fierului si a teracotelor era a bastinasilor, la noi în sat nefiind niciodata tigani, decât de-astia, cu cersitul”…

Ca Tartaria este o asezare straveche, cu radacini preistorice, o demonstreaza si descoperirile arheologului Nicolae Vlassa, care atesta o continuitate de locuire, aici, databila între anii 4500-200 î.d.H., si o cultura puternica, de tip Turdas.

O descoperire senzationala

Poate, niciodata, Tartaria n-ar fi atras atentia asupra ei, eventual prin interesul iscat de numele atât de straniu, invitând la fel de fel de speculatii lingvistice, daca…

Da, exista un mare daca în istoria acestei localitati!

În anul 1961, în ultima zi a cercetarilor sale arheologice în aceasta asezare (începute în 1942), Nicolae Vlassa face o descoperire care avea sa produca senzatie în lumea stiintifica. El scoate la lumina un mare complex de cult si un depozit unitar de resturi ale unor schelete omenesti, între care si trei tablite de lut, de mici dimensiuni, din vatra culturala neolitica Vincea-Turdas (sec. VII-VI î.d.H.), pe care, doi ani mai târziu, le reproduce si le comenteaza într-o revista de specialitate, care aparea în mai multe limbi straine, fapt ce, indubitabil, salveaza de la „înmormântare” senzationala descoperire, pentru care vor arata un interes de-a dreptul surprinzator specialisti din Ungaria, fosta Iugoslavie, Bulgaria, SUA si fosta URSS, care au încercat descifrarea si datarea lor, pe baza ultimelor cuceriri stiintifice în domeniu (Carbon 14 etc.). Modestele tablite (teracota) neolitice de la Tartaria fac sa treaca în plan secund „o teza si o carte care facusera înconjurul lumii: Civilizatia începe la Sumer”! Academicianul bulgar Vladimir I. Gheorghiev afirma ca „tablitele de la Tartaria sunt (…) mai vechi cu un mileniu decât monumentele scrierii sumeriene” si ca „scrierea, sub forma pictogramelor, a aparut în sud-estul Europei si nu în Mesopotamia, cum se credea pâna atunci, desenele si semnele de pe cele trei tablite reprezentând „cea mai veche scriere din lume”, mai ales ca scrierea sumeriana, din sec. IV î.d.H., „a aparut cu totul pe neasteptate si într-o forma dezvoltata”, ceea ce înseamna ca ea a fost ori adusa acolo, ori a fost ameliorata în scriere cuneiforma. La fel, orientalistul si poetul din Leningrad, Andrei Nadirov, se entuziasma în fata minunii de pe tablitele de la Tartaria, care transmiteau, peste vremuri, „solia fratilor pre-daci”, pentru ca Marija Gimbutas, o eminenta cercetatoare americana, sa încadreze scrierea acestor tablite într-o straveche scriere sacra, venind înca din paleolitic, cu manifestari mai bogate în neolitic, si apartinând civilizatiei Vechii Europe. Cam la aceleasi concluzii ajung si investigatiile unor cercetatori maghiari (Makkay Janos, Erzen Nustupny), iugoslavi (Jovan Todorovici), americani (S. Hood, David Whipp), sovietici (T.S. Passek, V. Titov, Boris Perlov) etc.

Daca nu sunt respinse ca falsuri sau pur si simplu ignorate, tablitele de la Tartaria nu trezesc aproape deloc interesul cercetatatorilor (istorici, arheologi, lingvisti) români, cu exceptia lingvistului Ariton Vraciu si a etnologului Romulus Vulcanescu, o uitare suspecta asternându-se peste ele si peste discutiile cercetatorilor straini, situatia ramânând aceeasi si dupa 1989, chiar daca, pentru prima data, tratatul de Istoria Românilor (Ed. Enciclopedica, 2001) consacra aproape 2 (doua) pagini Tartariei, discutabile si acestea prin concluziile cel putin nefericite pe care le propune. Deh, „complotul bubei” nu se stinge!…

A ramas pe umerii altor cercetatori, unii „nespecialisti”, abordarea fenomenului, ca si formularea celor mai îndraznete întrebari pentru elucidarea lui, în vederea alcatuirii unui corpus al textelor stravechi pastrate pe stânci, morminte, statui, vase de cult etc.

„Oare nu credeti ca a sosit timpul sa ne respectam patria, istoria, neamul?”

În perioada 23-29 octombrie 2000, la Milano, are loc simpozionul stiintific international ORIGINILE SCRIERII, în cadrul caruia cercetatorul Haral Harmann, de la Research Centre on Multilingualism din Bruxelles, reia, pe noi baze documentare, aparitia inciziilor scrieriforme pe diferitele obiecte descoperite în arealul carpato-balcanic. Concluzia dizertatiei sale este aceea ca tablitele de la Tartaria sunt primele semne de scriere incizata, care preced pictogramele mesopotamiene (3500-3300 î.d.H.), hieroglifele egiptene (3200-3000 î.d.H.), pictogramele cu inscriptii de pe Valea Indului (2500 î.d.H.) sau pe cele din China (1500-1200 î.d.H.), ca si enigmaticele mesaje ale zapotecilor mexicani (600 î.d.H.), ceea ce-l va determina pe Marco Merlini, câtiva ani mai târziu, sa rasuceasca teorema clasica „Ex Oriente Lux” în „Ex Occidente Lux”. Este vorba aici, în fond, despre statuarea teoriei, rezultata din cercetarile arheologice, potrivit careia spatiul carpato-danubiano-pontic avea, în neolitic, cea mai densa populatie, care a generat culturile Cris-Starcevo, Vincea-Turdas, Petresti, Pre-Cucuteni, Cucuteni, Boian, Gumelnita etc.

În fata acestor realitati, istoricii si oficialitatile române ramân oarbe, surde si mute. Se trezeste, însa, un american de origine româna, dr. Napoleon Savescu, care arunca – din dragoste pentru neamul sau si dintr-o pasiune devoranta pentru cercetarea preistorica si istorica – „manusa”: „Oare nu credeti ca a sosit timpul sa ne respectam patria, istoria, neamul?” Domnia-sa înfiinteaza fundatia „Reînvierea Daciei”, publicatia „Dacia Magazin”, „Dacia TV”, la New York, si, la Bucuresti, congresele de Dacologie: Sarmizegetusa-2000, Burebista-2001, N. Densusianu-2002 si Tartaria-2003. Pe un ton polemic, cu argumente de o simplitate si adâncime dezarmante, interventiile publice ale domniei-sale, inclusiv volumul Noi nu suntem urmasii Romei, încearca sa implementeze tezele potrivit carora „noi, dacii, nu am pierit”, ca „poporul carpato-pontico-danubian constituie poporul-matca al Europei”, ca acest popor „poarta în el cele mai vechi vestigii ale existentei si activitatii omului în Europa, indicând apartanenta lui la marea arie a antropogenezei”.

„Cum, ei, pre-dacii, sa scrie înaintea tuturor? Cum sa scrie daca nu stiau sa citeasca?”

„Nu putem trece prin viata mergând cu ochii închisi si astupându-ne urechile la un adevar evident – spune dr. Napoleon Savescu. Nu putem sa refuzam sa auzim comentariile celor ce refuza sa accepte dogma: crede si nu cerceta, eu sunt profesorul, pe mine trebuie sa ma asculti! Nu putem accepta faptul ca pâna în anul 106 d.Hr. n-am existat, pentru ca asa învatam la scoala sau la facultate. Nu putem accepta faptul ca legiunile romane au patruns în Dacia, au cucerit 14% din teritoriul ei pentru o perioada istorica de neglijat, 165 de ani, si, peste noapte, toata populatia Daciei, ocupata sau neocupata de romani, a început sa vorbeasca o alta limba, romanica (fara ca în 86% din teritoriul Daciei sa fi calcat picior de soldat roman)… Ce or fi avut dacii atât de special ca romanii sa-i învete numai pe ei limba latina, în 165 de ani, si „au refuzat” sa-i învete pe maltezi în 1088 de ani, pe greci în 641 de ani, pe egipteni în 425 de ani, pe britanici în 450 de ani sau pe evrei în 325 de ani?”… „Rasfoind publicatiile lumii, îl gasim pe sumerologul american John A. Halloran întrebându-se: Cum se poate explica faptul ca într-o regiune din vestul României, înconjurata cu nume sumeriene ca: URASTIE, SIMERIA, KUGIR, s-au gasit trei tablite din lut local cu pictograme sumeriene, dar mai vechi cu 1.000 de ani decât cele din Mesopotamia?! (…) „Asumându-ne o origine triviala, recenta, romana, sigur ca acestea nu ne mai apartin”…

Si, totusi, lectiile arheologiei, chiar daca nu sunt asumate oficial, ramân si, mai devreme sau mai târziu, triumfa. Descoperirile arheologice de la Turdas, realizate de cercetatoarea arheolog Sofia Turma (Sophia Torma), în a doua jumatate a sec. XIX, desi neglijate si „date uitarii”, atesta, cu peste 1500 de ani înaintea semnelor pictografice de pe tablitele de la Tartaria, semne ideografice devenite litere si cifre cu caracter latin (C mare, D mare si d mic, I, L, O, S, T, U, V, X, precum si cifrele III, V, VI, X), printre acestea fiind descoperite si semnul crucii si cel al zvasticii.

Ca traco-geto-dacii cunosteau scrisul, o confirma si autorii antici: Aristofan (450-385 î.d.H.) mentioneaza ca „tracii cunosteau scrisul”, iar Cato cel Batrân (234-149 î.d.H.), în Originile Romei, apreciaza ca „Getii, cu mult înainte de întemeierea Romei, au proslavit în Ode scrise faptele de vitejie ale eroilor lor, acompaniati de flaut, ceea ce la romani, acest lucru a avut loc mult mai târziu”; Berosus (sec. III î.d.H.) spune ca si-a adunat Istoriile din cartile caldeenilor si ale celtilor (tracilor), pentru ca Ovidiu, exilat la Tomis, sa declare ca „am învatat sa vorbesc limba getica si sarmatica”, ca „am scris o cartulie în limba getica”, ca fiul si mostenitorul tronului trac, Cotys, i-a citit poeme scrise în limba geta etc.

Cum sa acrediteze, atunci, circumspectii istorici români, tablitele de la Tartaria altfel decât un fals? Precis, „niste negustori sumerieni au trecut pe la noi si le-au pierdut (asta, înainte cu 1000 de ani ca Sumerul sa existe)! Cum, adica, ei, pre-dacii, sa scrie înaintea tuturor? Cum sa scrie daca nu stiau sa citeasca?”

„Vom întelege importanta acestei zile doar peste câtiva ani”

Incet, dar sigur, aceste pamânturi îsi recupereaza istoria, continuitatea de locuire, fondul uman. Demnitatea si locul între popoarele si neamurile lumii. Dupa secole si secole de agresiune. Cu rare sclipiri. Dar auguste. Cu uriase rezerve de potentialitate.

Un moment, în aceste recuperari, îl reprezinta si ziua de 22 iunie 2003, zi în care, prin eforturile dr.-ului Napoleon Savescu si ale prietenilor sai, între care si marele arheolog si cercetator Gh. Lazarovici, satul Tartaria intra si în constiinta româneasca, dupa ce a facut înconjurul lumii! Un monument impresionant, din granit de Baia Mare, care marcheaza primul mesaj scris, cunoscut pâna acum, din istoria omenirii, a fost dezvelit – pentru eterna aducere-aminte si pentru un mereu recurs la vechime, la faptele celor dinaintea noastra, atunci când sufletul, mintea si mâinile noastre rostuiesc si faptuiesc.

Ceremonialul de la Tartaria, programat pentru ora 11, a adunat circa 2000 de poporeni, de la taranii locuitori ai celebrei asezari, pâna la oameni politici, istorici, ziaristi si scriitori, ca si pe participantii la cel de-al 4-lea Congres International de Dacologie, care au fost sufletul si motorul acestei extraordinare manifestari. Cuvântul scurt, marcând evenimentul si cursul festivitatilor, rostit de primarul comunei Saliste de Alba, Ioan Scutaru, sfintirea monumentului de catre un sobor de preoti si diaconi au prefatat adevaratele comunicari stiintifice prezentate multimii de dr. Napoleon Savescu si Marco Merlini (Italia), dar si de prefectul de Alba, Ioan Rus, si de presedintele Consiliului Judetean Hunedoara, dr. Mihail Rudeanu. Au fost momente emotionante, traite plenar de participanti, între care si vreo 10-15 bihoreni atrasi de magia cuvântului scris, ale caror suflet si gând sunt în consonanta cu ideile consacrate de N. Densusianu.

Ce s-ar putea spune mai mult despre esenta acestei manifestari, decât cuvintele lui N. Savescu? „Le place, nu le place unora dintre noi, despre Tartaria se vorbeste în lume din 1961 si pâna azi, continuu. Nu exista o întâlnire stiintifica internationala în care sa se aminteasca despre scris, despre civilizatie, si cuvântul Tartaria sa nu apara”… Sau ale italianului Marco Merlini: „Domnilor, peste tot în lume se stie ca romanii au plecat de aicea, si nu invers” (…) Vom întelege importranta acestei zile doar peste câtiva ani. Veti putea spune ca ati participat la un eveniment nu important numai pentru acest loc, nu numai important pentru România, ci pentru întreaga Europa. Pentru ca recunoasterea unui scris vechi de 7.000 de ani înseamna recunoasterea ca aici nu traiau oameni primitivi, preocupati numai de existenta, de supravietuire (…) Scrierea din Tartaria nu este rezultatul unei singure persoane, geniale, ci al unei întregi culturi. Vreau sa va spun, apoi, ca alaturi de cultura egipteana, mesopotamiana, era si cultura danubiana, si din multe puncte de vedere se poate spune ca aceasta cultura danubiana este cea dintâi… În acesti urmatori ani, România va intra în Uniunea Europeana. Eu cred ca este important ca România sa faca o buna prezenta culturala si politica, pentru ca toata Europa sa recunoasca cultura danubiana, una dintre mamele identitatii Europei”…

Pentru un Muzeu al Scrierii Europene

Înaltat pe un soclu de beton si marmura, monumentul de la Tartaria, închinat primei scrieri atestate din lume, a fost realizat de sculptorul Ioan Seu si ridicat, dupa cum retine si placa de pe partea nordica, cu sprijinul Dr. Napoleon Savescu, presedintele Fundatiei „Dacia Reviav International”, av. Ioan Rus, ec. Eugen Popa, dr. Mihail Nicolae Rudeanu, Dr. Nick Stoian, prof. Dumitru Malin, preot dr. Ioan Rudeanu, av. Lazar Cutus, Vladimir Brilinsky, si cu un aport material remarcabil al lui George Constantin Paunescu.

Pentru noi, bihorenii, prezenta eminentului avocat oradean, dl Lazar Cutus, pe „placa nemuritorilor”, este prilej de reala bucurie si mândrie. Si, ca fapt divers, trebuie spus ca domnia-sa este socrul Dr.-ului Napoleon Savescu si omul care, în ultimul moment, a adus granitul de Baia Mare, dupa ce andezitul initial pentru realizarea monumentului cazuse din ghearele unei macarale si se sparsese.

Nu putem încheia aceasta sumara prezentare a unei manifestari de o importanta capitala si speciala pentru istoria si cultura acestor pamânturi fara a pleda, alaturi de Marco Merlini: „Cred ca acest loc minunat de la Tartaria, un loc unic în lume, ar trebui sa posede si un muzeu, un muzeu al scrierii europene, un muzeu unic în toata România. Si daca dumneavoastra decideti sa construiti acest muzeu, veti gasi un sprijin deosebit la universitatile din Roma, din Londra, din New York, chiar si din Australia, de unde veti dobândi si prieteni de o inestimabila valoare stiintifica si sufleteasca”…

 

Preluat de pe "dacii.ro"

 

Potrivit teoriilor despre astronauții din vechime, ființe extraterestre inteligente (numite astronauți străvechi sau extratereștri străvechi) au vizitat Pământul, iar acest contact are legătură cu originea și dezvoltarea culturilor, tehnologiilor și religiilor umane. Unele dintre aceste teorii susțin că zeitățile din cele mai multe religii – dacă nu cumva din toate – sunt, de fapt, extratereștri, tehnologiile lor fiind considerate drept dovadă a originii lor divine de către pământeni.

Aceste teorii au fost popularizate cu precădere în a doua jumătate a secolului XX, de scriitorii Erich von Daniken, Zecharia Sitchin, Robert K. G.  Teoriile despre astronauții străvechi au fost folosite masiv in literatura SF. Aceste teorii sunt însă ignorate de comunitatea științifică și în jurnalele și studiile academice.

Nota editorului, 28 August, 1995

Acest text a fost scos la iveala de John R.H. Penner dintr-o carte gasita intr-un anticariat,

pentru doar 2,50 Dollars. Singura modalitate de identificare este numele cumparatorului initial,

Arthura Daine (?), datata 29 Aprilie, 1978.

Cartea pare sa fie considerabil mai batrana, scrisa cu ajutorul unei masini de scris, si apoi fofocopiata si apoi capsata. Alta particularitate a cartii este ca are patru fotografii originale fotocopiate ale lui Tesla, si ca originalul continea 40 de pagini.

Trebuie sa-mi cer scuze pentru calitatea scanarilor, dar originalele erau de o calitate foarte scazuta , si asta este tot ce am putut sa obtin dupa prelucrare.

Cartea nu are nici o forma identificabila de Copyright, sau orice mijloace de a identifica si contacata autorii sau cei care au publicat-o. Din cate mi-am dat seama aceasta autobiorgafie nu mai este disponibila nicaieri in forma tiparita. Urmarind interesul de a face acest tex important, disponibil publicului larg, am rescris intregul text cuvant cu cuvant asa cum apare in aceasta versiune in format electronic. Singurele cuvinte care apar in aceasta lucrare si nu erau in textul original, sunt aceasta nota a editorului , si introducerea. Am mentinut numarul paginilor exact asa cum apar in original – inclus fiind si ciudatenia prin care Capitolul I incepe de la pagina doi. Daca cineva stie cum poate fi contactat editura initiala, va rog sa ma contactati la adresa de mai jos, astfel creditu sa ajunga acolo unde ar trebui:

John Roland Hans Penner

464 Scott Street

St. Catharines, Ontario

L2M 3W7, Canada

Phone: 905.646.3551

eMail: J.Penner@GEnie.GEIS.com

Acest fisier poate fi distribuit liber, atat timp cat continutul lui nu a fost modificat, in ori ce fel. Nu poate fi vandut, sau publicat pentru profit, decat daca obtineti un drept de publicare pentru profit de la Kolmogorov- Smirnov Publishing, or John R.H. Penner.

Daca nu sunt facute alte specificatii aceasta lucrare este sub Copyright ©1995 by John R.H. Penner.

 

 

Introducere

 

Nikola Tesla s-a nascut in Croatia ( atunci parte din Austo-Ungaria ) la data de 9 Iulie 1856, si a murit la data de 7 Ianuarie 1943. A fost Inginerul electrician care a invantat curentul alternativ, motorul electric cu inductie electromagnetica, to el a fost omul care a facut posibila transmisia energie electrice la sacara industriala, asa cum o vedem astazi. Tesla si-a inceput studiile in domeniile fizicii si matematicii la Politehnica Graz, apoi a urmat filosofia la universitatea din Praga.

A lucrat ca Inginer Electrician in Budapesta Ungaria, si apou in Franta si Germania. In 1888 descoperirea sa, „campul magnetic poate fi folosit pentru a roti doua bobine aflate in unghi drept , daca sunt alimentate cu curent alternativ defazat cu 90 de grade, a facut posibil inventarea motorului cu inductie de curent alternativ,.Marele avantaj era ca acest tip de motor era fara perii, lucru care la vremea respectiva se credea a fi imposibil.

Tesla s-a mutat in Statele Uite in 1884, unde a lucrat pentru Thomas Edison, care i-a devenit repede rival – Edison care era avocatul curentului continuu si a sistemului inferior de transmisie al cestuia. In tot acest timp Tesla a fost comisionat designul generatoarelor de curent instalate la Cascada Niagara. George Westinghouse a cumparat patentele pentru motorul cu inductie al lui Tesla, si lea folosit ca baza pentru sistemele generatoare de curent Westinghouse, care stau inca la baza generatoarelor de curent folosite si astazi.

El a facut cercetari in domeniul curentilor electrici de inalta tensiune si a comunicatiilor fara fir (wireless); La un moment dat a produs un cutremur ce a zguduit pamantul pe o raza de cateva mile in jurul laboratorului sau din New York. Tot el a conceput un sistem care a anticipat comunicatiile fara fir la nivel mondial, masinile fax, radarul, rachete, avioane si vehicole ghidate radio, dar nu in ultimul rand el a inventat tubul cu descarcare in gaze inerte, cunoscut noua ca Neon, si chiar mai mult el a fost primul om care a descoperit ca din spatiul cosmic primim o multitudeine de semnale radio, deci tot Nikola Tesla a fost parintele radio telescopului cu toate implicatiile sale.

 

Nickola Tesla este cu adevarat Profetul Necunoscut al Epocii Electricitatii !

Fara de care Radioul, autoaprinderea,telefonul, generatoarele de curent alternativ, televiziunea, Radiotelescopul, Tuburile economice Cu gaze inerte (Ne,Ar,Kr,Xe) ar fi fost imposibile, si totusi viata si creditul pentru lucrarile sale, mare parte din patentele sale au fost restrictionate si au disparut in uitare, timp in care, altii au publicat patente si s-au auto intitulat descoperitori ai unor lucruri pe care le descoperise Omul de geniuNikola Tesla deja.

Aceasta biografie este scrisa pentru a umple „Gaura Neagra” din spatiul informational.

©Kolmogorov- Smirnov Publishing.

Traducerea si adaptarea textului pentru limba romana  ©Cezar Boros

Traducerea cartii este inca in lucru, acesta este doar un extras, voi face public textul integral dupa finalizarea traducerii, care poate sa mai dureze ceva timp, aceasta fiind o activitate benevola, din pasiune, respect pentru cel care a fost Nicola Tesla, si care nu-mi aduce nici un venit.

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Ion Goldariu

Near Costesti-Cetatuie, on a 250 meters high knoll, lies the fortress from Costesti-Blidaru. The rectangular plan, the bulwarks placed at the corners, the entrance – placed in a bulwark – and an inhabitable tower, they all point out the same Hellenistic influence, despite the fact that the technique of building the fortress’ walls do not completely conform to that influence. Due to this deviation from the rule they built, made of shaped stone, without those blocks that were placed perpendicularly on the direction of the wall. During a second phase, the defence work was enlarged – its area being doubled -, behind the northern and the western walls of the precincts, shaped stone walls being, alternating with unshaped stone walls tied with earth. They represented provision storehouses, their floors being used as combat platforms. During the same period, a little lower than the defence work, a tank was built, strictly following Vitruvius’ principles. The Greek letters that were on the walls of the inhabitable tower, as well as on the southern wall, represent signs of quarry marking. The supervision of the ways of access was provided from the height of those 14 towers. Not far from the defence work there were two sanctuaries. West of Blidaru […] there is the fortress from Luncani – Piatra Rosie. First, the precincts walls were simultaneously built on an arranged plateau. They were provided with five bulwarks – four at the corners and one on the tract of the western wall -. During this same phase, two big constructions and a sanctuary were also built, the large building from the precincts, too, – which we call ”barrack” – and three isolated towers. During a subsequent phase, two of them have been linked, at the basis of the plateau, by unshaped stone walls, tied with earth. The access inside the fortress – through a bulwark -, the monumental stone stair and the rectangular plan of the ensemble are of Hellenistic inspiration, while the unshaped stone walls reveal the Dacian technique, inspired by the Hellenistic one. Having in view the fact that the defence works from Varful lui Hulpe were not deliberately, archaeologically studied, the last explored fortress was that of Sarmizegetusa. Watchtowers supervised the ancient road, 20 km. long, from Costesti-Blidaru to this place, […]. The capital city of the Dacian kingdom, Sarmizegetusa, stretched over an area of 6 km., the constructions being placed on terraces, some of which are sustained by walls, 14 meters high. During the ancient age, the town was made of three different areas: two civilian districts and, between them, the defence work and the sacred zone; the whole ensemble was provided with water pipes, sewers, paved roads, stairs etc.
The defence works surround a 1,000 meters high knoll and they consist of a ground elevation that blocks the access way. The elevation is overlapped by a stockade in the southern side, while the precincts wall is built with Dacian technique of Hellenistic inspiration. Partly destroyed in106 […], the fortress was enlarged and rebuilt by the conquerors […]. The sacred zone is situated East of the defence work. Ten rectangular sanctuaries as well as a big stone altar, were discovered, all of them made completely or mostly of limestone or andesite. The rectangular sanctuaries are limited, to the outside, by a row of stone pillars, while to the inside, massive wooden or stone columns were raised. […]
For achieving all these constructions, there is no doubt that the effort was out of common, because this area lacks in stone for building. […]
Except for its sanctuaries, the micro-area from Sarmizegetusa certifies an unwonted resembling of native (Dacian) traditional elements and Hellenistic influences […]. At the same time, by their number and proportions as well as by their placing and way of building, the constructions from Sarmizegetusa represent the most important ancient European architectural achievements outside the Greco-Roman world; they do not have any correspondent from the same era, on the ”barbarian” areas of the continent.

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Over a period of more than 150 years (the 1st. century BC – the 1st. century AD) Dacia disposed of a genuine defense system, containing more than 90 defense works, of various types: fortified settlements, fortresses and earth works. As for the defense works of pre-Roman Dacia, those from the southwestern area of the nowadays Transylvania represent a particular group. Built in the southern side of the middle basin of the Mures river – in that part of the Meridional Carpathians that form the Sureanu Massif – they permitted a continuous control of the ways of access to the capital city of the Dacian kingdom, Sarmizegetusa. […] In this area of the capital city of the Dacian kingdom, the vestiges of the Dacian dwelling make up a unique ensemble, in which the elements of the autohtonic civilisation mould extremely well with those that have been borrowed from the Greco-Roman classical world.The archaeological excavations effectuated at Sarmizegetusa – which is situated on the western side of the Sureanu Mountain – revealed rural Dacian dwellings in the vicinity of the quasi-urban ones, proving a preoccupation for the urban and the territorial arrangement, as well as the existence of some economical functioning that belong to the similar centres (Fetele Albe, Ceata, Sarmizegetusa – Grãdiºtea de Munte); on this occasion there were discovered defence works proper that had been set on fire by the Romans, on the occasion of their victory, obtained by Trajan in 106, which thus concluded the second military campaign against the Dacian King, Decebalus. The defence works proper can be divided into three categories: fortresses that were built in the proximity of the civilian centres (Costesti-Cetatuie, Vârful lui Hulpe and Sarmizegetusa – the latter two on the area of the present – day locality of Gradistea de Munte) fortresses that do not have civilian centres around them – they have been built strictly from military reasons (Costesti – Blidaru, Luncani – Piatra Rosie) and the imposing defence wall from Cioclovina-Ponorici. This one is built of wood and unshaped stones; it is more than 2,5 km. long and it has immense bulwarks of 40 to 80 meters in diameter, as well as oblique and perpendicular walls which are to the main wall and have the role of braking up the enemy’s front of attack. The whole wall reveals the traditional Dacian technique, but the bulwarks and the perpendicular walls betray elements that have been borrowed from the Hellenistic world.

In the case of the fortresses, the plans are either traditional (but adapted as much as possible to the configuration of the land, without significant adjustments), or Hellenistic architecture. The category of the fortresses with traditional plans include the defense works made of wood and earth, at Costesti-Cetatuie, as well as those of earth, wood and stone, at Sarmizegetusa. The fortresses with plans inspired by the Hellenistic architecture include the defense works from Costesti-Blidaru and Luncani-Piatra Rosie. The same observation can be made for the defense works, as well: walls of stone shaped in Hellenistic manner (at Costesti-Cetatuie and, partly, at Costesti-Blidaru) and walls of shaped stone, inspired by the Hellenistic technique (partly, at Costesti-Blidaru and at Luncani – Piatra Rosie and Sarmizegetusa). All together, these defence works constitute a defensive system for Sarmizegetusa, but taken separately, each of them represent, through their specific features, a well configured entity. There is, however, a generally valid characteristic: the fortresses can not resist to prolonged sieges due to the fact that the permanent source of water is lower than the height of the defence work […]. The oldest defence work is that of Costesti-Cetatuie, and it was built on the brink of the 2nd century AD when, on a 150 meters high knoll, two ground elevations with a multiple stockade on their tops, were arranged. […] It is probable that, around the year 55 BC, after the conquest of the Greek fortresses from the western shore of the Black Sea, by the Dacian King Burebista, the native craftsmen and the builders contributed to the raising of the wall (4 meters thick), of shaped stone, on an angular tract. It was provided with three bulwarks – excepting the one that was situated in the precincts, on one of the ground elevations, as well as other three bulwarks from outside the defence work, situated on the way of access, as well as two other inhabitable towers. All these elements of defence are built with Hellenistic walls, with filling of the emplecton type (earth and river stones, placed between two walls of shaped stone). The way they look and other elements as well, lead us to the idea of the contribution of the Greek craftsmen: it is the case of the inhabitable towers (their first levels are built of walls of the same type, while the storeys are made of slightly burned bricks), the case of the monumental stone stairs, near the western inhabitable tower; it is also the case of the on a segment of the precincts wall. Inside the fortress there is also a watch tower, a tank for rain water, huts for soldiers and a rectangular sanctuary with wooden pillars and shaped stones pedestals; other three rectangular sanctuaries, which were built with the same technique, are outside the walls. At the base of the knoll (under the present-day locality) there stretched the big civilian settlement.

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Dacia

Posted: 30 Aprilie 2011 in Dacia, Istorie, Uncategorized, Zamolxis
Etichete:, ,


Damita Hiemstra

Sources for the Roman occupation in Dacia abound in historical documents as well as archaeological finds. The best known find is Trajan’s column in Rome, on which the Roman defeat of Dacia is portrayed in seven scenes. Some images also depict Dacian peoples who had fled during the war returning to traditional methods of herding sheep. This legacy of shepherding is documented in several sanctuaries referring to shepherding in the form of stone cylindrical monuments.
Another excellent source about the Roman occupation of this province is the inscription commemorating the founding of the Roman capital, Sarmizegetusa (now Hunedoara, Romania).
Other archaeological evidence comes from excavations of Sarmizegetusa where scholars discovered coinage made under Trajan’s command and a wall dated to the Roman occupation. Inside that wall public buildings, religious and secular, were identified. Outside the wall are suburbs, temples, two necropoleis, and an amphitheater with a capacity of 5000 people built in second-century stone/brick masonry work. The governor’s palace, also discovered through excavations, was made of stone, brick, limestone, and marble. Paint still remained on some areas and the roof was tiled. Other discoveries were a third-century mausoleum and a gladiatorial school, two multi-colored mosaics, and temples to the god Mithras and Syrian gods.
An indication that Dacian people constituted a warring society before Roman occupation came from rock fortresses found in several places including Sarmizegetusa and Apulum. Apulum was a very important center of Roman Dacia, having hundreds of inscriptions (no longer existing) and a multitude of artifacts of Dacian daily life (e.g., baths, temples, streets, aqueducts, evidence of a collegium, coins, and statues of deities).
The major factor of Dacia’s location is its geographical isolation. Located on the Transylvania plateau north of the Danube, it is surrounded by mountains on almost three sides. Nevertheless, because its defenses were weaker than those of any other Roman province, it was a natural invasion route. Therefore extensive defensive measures were necessary in Dacia. In this respect Dacia was more of a liability for the Roman Empire then an asset.
Dacia’s natural resources were gold, iron, and silver, which were mined under Greek and Celtic influence. TheDacians developed superb metalcrafting arts under this influence and made various handcrafted items such as jewelry and other gold items. Dacia also traded with Greece, importing Grecian wine in exchange for Dacian goods. Other natural resources were cattle-raising, agriculture, and forestry, all traditional forms of living. After the Roman conquest of Dacia, a portion of that province’s wealth and resources were sent back to Rome.
Dacia’s native population moved into the region about the seventh or the sixth century BC. Possible ancestry could be from northern subgroups of the Thracians, sometimes confused or combined with the Getae or the most western element of the Scythian people. By the first century BC the Dacians were the leading tribe of region. They were fiercely defensive, and with the right leader could be successfully aggressive. Burebista became Dacia’s king around 60 BC and brought Dacia to the military and political attention of Rome. Rome felt threatened by them but Burebista died, leaving the kingdom to fall apart. Under Roman rule the native population tried to adapt as best they could to Roman ways. Many were forced into slavery, some committed suicide, and the Romans killed many to set an example for the rest of the provinces to fall in line. Trajan killed 10,000 men just in his gladiatorial games.
Burebista conquered surrounding peoples, while threatening the Danubian and Black Sea territories. Rome recognized the threat, and Caesar wanted to march on Dacia; however, both he and Burebista were assassinated in 44 BC. Even though the Dacian kingdom fell apart after Burebista’s death, Rome was still worried about its strong military. Augustus thought he had the Dacians contained but he was mistaken. The Dacians raided parts of Romania and Moesia as the warrior Decebalus took leadership of Dacia some time between 65 and 86 BC. Decebalus tried to restore the unity of the people and rebuild the military but he failed: Trajan began his battles in March 101 and finished in AD 106 declaring Dacia a province of the Roman Empire.
The degree of Romanization in Dacia was extensive. Rome wanted massive Romanization in Dacia for loyalty in case of invasion. Dacia was Romanized but it retained their traditional cattle driving and agricultural practices. Due to the influx of colonists and other Roman citizens populating the newly declared province, however, changes were happening. Many people escaped to „Free Dacia” to the north to hold on to their traditional peasant cultures and to wait until they could reclaim their homeland. Dacia’s original population remained strong enough throughout the occupation to revolt three times after conquest.
Rome’s mechanisms of administration in Dacia began with the people who moved in: colonists, citizens, pilgrims, merchants, mining specialists, and soldiers.
Although Roman occupation lasted only 164 years, many changes occurred. Mines were rapidly exploited. Dacia was run like a police state and divided up into Superior and Inferior Dacia in AD 118-119. Superior Dacia was divided again into another pair of provinces in AD 124. During the German War (ca 168) Dacia was consolidated once again into one military area. Latin was introduced as a unifying agent in order for the province to run smoothly and it remains today the foundation of the Romanian language. A customs station was set up in Sarmizegetusa to deal with the movement of goods and people across the borders.
Benefits for Rome during the occupation of Dacian territory were money, booty, mined materials (gold, sliver, and iron), and land. Manpower was also a benefit for Rome because Dacia provided the largest number of Roman troops after the occupation took place. There was occasional brutality, exploitation, and extortion from the Romans on Dacian peoples but Dacia also received some benefits from the conquest. The Roman peace made possible the transmission of Greek culture, a reduction of slavery (fewer war captives), and the reinvigorating of Greek art. Assimilated Dacians had career opportunities in Roman administration as well. The culture of sophisticated cities, organized laws, and an extended peace allowed the Dacian people to expand their culture.
Dacia passed out of Roman control due to threats of invasions from surrounding armies. Rome decided to pull out in AD 270, making Dacia the first province to be abandoned. As Roman citizens evacuated Dacia, they pushed Moesian citizens out. Dacia was a liability that Rome kept for a longer time because of wealth & strategic location, however, these factors were not enough to outweigh the severe drawbacks.

 

„DECEBALUS” („BRAVEHEART”) – KING DIURAPNEUS’ NICKNAME

Motto: „Of Gods Themselves should we descend
All, facing Death, still have to bend;
It makes no difference as to die
An old hunchback, or younger guy,
Yet, Lion better says „good bye”
Over a Dog in chains…”
(From: „Decebalus addressing the people”, by poet George Cosbuc)

Throughout the First century A.D., the Carpatho-Danubiano-Pontic geographical space apparently was some kind of an immense fighting zone. Its Thracian local population sees herself continously harassed, plundered, robbed, pushed aside, stricken and hit by all kinds of tribal new-comers, whose migratory waves gradually succeed to settle down somewhere and… to create, nevertheless, their later called „own” History and Culture, by actually stealing them both from us. Greek first-comers, who were to arrive here within three successive stages, from Eastern banks of the Caspican Sea (between 1900-1400 B.C.), had quietly formed a solid, large community near our Black Sea’s friendly shores, only to find themselves, in their turn, later conquered by… Romans, and under whose oppressive yoke they were going to stay some 500 years well over us, Dacian-Thracians. Still, it appears that, through a kind of „miracle”, their native language remained virtually unchanged while only ours’, the future-to-be called Romanian people, was to substantially „modify” not during half a millenium, but just a hundred something years or so, of subsequent occupation by the same expansionist Empire… Should this be a truthful presentation indeed, or maybe it’s more accurate to assume Thracian language as already existing, as being the so-called „Coarse Latin”, which would explain why them, Thracians, didn’t have to bother learning another „new” dialect, while forgetting their own „mother-tongue” (in accordance with the reputed Romanian historian Ovid Densusianu’s theory, opposing other distorting ones)?…
But, let us better go back to explore History itself. Towards the very end of the above mentioned troubled period, precisely during the summertime of the year 87 A.D., one of Rome’s most decadent, perverted ancient Emperors, namely Domitianus, sends his armed troops into an attempt to (finally) occupy the vast Dacian country situated at Danube River Northern’s side. No sooner had the Romans crossed its „forbidden waters”, trespassing on an improvised, vessel-made bridge, than Dacian warriors quickly managed to ambush them within the extremely narrow mountain pass of Tapae (a zone also longtime nicknamed „Transylvania’s Iron Gates”) and… to draw an awesome victory over the invaders. As a result, the famous V-th Roman Legion „ALAUDAE” is totally destroyed, its military insignias captured, with its commander in chief, veteran General Cornelius Fuscus, being killed on the battlefield. Yet, who had been the „architect” of this international echoing Dacian success, its Army’s obviously inspired leader, anyway? His name, soon to be famous World-wide as well, was then written down by only one Roman historian, called Tacitus (but whose works were to inspire, afterwards, his following other War chroniclers, such as Orasius, within V-th century A.D. and, respectively, Jordanus, VI-th century A.D.). His name, the REAL NAME of the victorious „DACIAN WOLF”, was actually DIURAPNEUS, a „TARABOSTES” (namely an aristocrat, according to local denomination) FROM SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF DACIA’S ORIGINS and to whom the Supreme ruler, then KING DURAS DURBANEUS, would soon GRANT HIS own THRONE after Tapae’s victory, through an unprecedented visionary, noble gesture. Following deeds, to be carried out during the entire rest of his turbulent life, entitled Thraco-Dacian population to actually divinize her new King while still alive, up to granting him a DEMIGOD STATUS and the legendary nickname of „DECEBALUS” (that is „BRAVEHEART”, or „THE HEROIC ONE”) for posterity. It is important to underline, here, how Dacians were always going to battle under their „Wolf” ‘s banner (having a Wolf’s head ending through a Dragon’s tail), characteristic for the previous Thracian armies as well; meanwhile, Romans themselves were fighting to the glory of their Empire’s capital, ROME, which is said to have been founded, in its turn, under a „She-Wolf” sign (as being „certified” in the „ROMULUS AND REMUS BROTHERS” ‘LEGEND), by some survivors of the mythical Troja fortress’ downfall, who would have been then guided up to the „Seven Hills” (Tybrus River)’ narrow valley by one of them, AENEAS, actually a… Thracian himself! Thus, Rome itself, an „Eternal Fortress” symbolizing this „new civilization” ‘s very beginnings, misteriously bears a NAME whose origins still require clarification. Neither the exact year of the City’s founding is quite definite until nowadays, nor does its name seem to have originated from Romulus’, as the legend which has been kept alive only through the Roman historian Titus Livius’ writings states to us (specifically quoting, „CONDITA URBES, CONDITORIS NOMINE APPELLATA”, in Latin), but mainly from the capital’s geographical location , which was situated next to the River Tybrus, leading our logistics straight towards ancient Thracian, or maybe Ethruscian words „RAU” („river”, „running water”) and „RUMON” („son of Rome”). Whereas confronting these two ancient denominations, the entire „Romulus” legedary tale looks to have rather been „borrowed” by Titus Livius from even older Pelasgian (Thracian) civilization’s myths, and where the Romulus and Remus twin brothers appear to have had their descent. As a result, since both Dacian and Roman people were speaking already an almost common language, and should we put aside, as well, the years’ multitude to pass over, isn’t it an irony of Fate that today’s Romans should be called „Italians” whereas ourselves, Pelasgian-Thracians, respectively named „Roman(ian)s”?…
If we had now to return analysing the valiant „DIURAPNEUS-DECEBALUS” ‘ Destiny, since he WAS „GREAT DACIA” ‘S LAST KING, it would be useful to show precisely the fact that this one succeeds in remaking both his country’s territorial and national unities and strenghtening its military strike forces, all these without neglecting to cautiously conclude several Treaties of political alliance with neighbouring nations, as to ensure, to the freshly-enacted DACIAN CONFEDERATION, its recovered boundaries’ national security. These boundaries were to be, later on, sketched in a written form showing his personal interest by Ptolemaeus himself, as ranging from Carpathian Mountains until the Nister River (the ancient Tyros)’ path and, from there, up to the wide Danube. Other Geta blood-related tribal clusters, scattered throughout Eastern Moldavia up to the other side of Bug River, namely Iazhigs and Roxolans, would very soon join at will this Confederation which dared to oppose, moreover to defy Rome openly. On the internal level, out of King Decebalus’ times dates THE MAGNIFICENT ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEX FROM SARMISEGETUZA, Decebalus’ main fortress (in the Orastie Mountains), that includes, among other touristic attractions nowadays, a Sacred Premise, an andezith Solar disc for time’s measuring, several Holy quadrilateral Sanctuaries, as well as the nearby Metallurgical Work-shops at Gradistea Muscelului.
Whereas Decebalus’ politico-economical construction works were feverishly, buy resolutely carried out, in Rome, Domitianus’ „establishment” was gradually getting very displeased, even sickened with his „grand style” show-offs, perpetual orgies and irresponsible Treasury’s spending, to speak nothing about his opened despotism or the newly-born Christianity’s savage repression campaigns. Thus, on September 18-th, 96 A.D., Domitianus would be assassinated by one of his own Pretorian Guard’s
members, while in the killing’s aftermath an elder Senator, MARCUS COCCEIUS NERVA, was promptly procclaimed as a new Emperor by successful conspirators from the Army’s Staff. Feeling, however, much too old and weakened for a „top job”, Nerva, who didn’t care to procreate through his entire life, was soon going to officially adopt an already „grown up” son and future „leadership associate” at the same time, by choosing one of the Roman Legions’ „raising stars”, one of the Army’s most capable, handsome young Consuls, respectively MARCUS ULPIUS TRAJANUS. Not long afterwards, on October 29-th, 97 A.D., the already „acting-Emperor” Trajan, after completing some victorious campaigns against Germanic tribes, was to get angry with „the opened contempt which Dacians fostered upon Romans” (as says the Roman historian Plinius „the Younger”), deciding therefore to „beef up” his Moesia Inferior troops, build a new Roman military camp near Barbosi-Galatzi, consolidate all the previously conquered Pontic cities’ old fortifications up to Tyros (Nister) River and to dispose, moreover, the completion of Southern Danube shore’s ancient highway until Cazane mountain defile (this last action is to be confirmed by a so-called „Tabula Trajana” inscription). Yet, the major reason which was to ultimately reignite a decisive war against Dacians proves to have been the country’s huge gold and silver reserves, and the possession of a thesaurus which made the Dacian Land look like an ancient „El Dorado”, or „California” to the eyes of financially-troubled leaders of the Roman Empire (for all the Empire’s mercenary soldiers could launch a wide-scale mutiny, should they not have been paid in time- besides their military campaigns’ preys). Following his plans, Trajan would add to the 9 Roman Legions stationed within Middle and Inferior Danube’s area yet another 6, respectively 4 brought from German provinces and other 2 specially created on the occasion of the First Dacian War’s imminent outburst, on March 25-th, 101 A.D. During that day, Emperor Trajan leaves Rome to personally take command upon some 150,000 soldiers in arms, ready to conquer… WHAT? A country of so-called „illiterates”, having „neither a literary language nor a cultural background of their own”, „a land with very small population”- as a few „friendly”, „objective” historians struggle to maintain for quite a while??… Should we have been so „few”, why would then Trajan have needed a multitude of Legions, with hundreds of thousands soldiers, to „kneel” us?!… And should we have been yet so „poor”, why on Earth have they kept on coming to us?!… For a fact, no later than during the summer of year 101 A.D., the Roman Legions, led by Trajan, reach Lederata (today’s Rama) to pursue their march towards Acidava (nowadays, Varadita).
King Decebalus, one of the most gifted Dacian military strategists to have ever existed since his late predecessor, the Great Emperor Burebista, allows the invaders’ breaking through until the Banat Region, whereas concentrating most of his warriors within the same narrow pass of Tapae-Bucova, where, after a very bloody yet undecided open confrontation, Trajan finally claims a modest victory. Still, this victory would open Romans’ way towards advancing up to the Hatsegului Zone, situated at the proximity of Dacian nucleus hidden in the Sureanu Massif. Meanwhile, thanks to diversionist tactics fastly organized by Decebalus, who had also hurried to conclude further alliances with the Burs, Basthorns and Roxolans’ tribes, by crossing unexpectedly the Danube in order to launch a series of surprise attacks upon new Roman settlements, located between the Danube’s curve and Pontus Euxinus (today’s Black Sea), Trajan would be compelled to withdraw a part of his Legions from Dacia, so as to be capable of pushing back both Dacians and their South Dobrudja’s fierce allies. Much later (in 109 A.D.), in order to remind future generations about this stage of his military campaigns, the Roman Emperor would erect, on the two former battleground locations, „the Adamclisi Monument” and the so-called „Tropaeum Trajani”.
Throughout the spring of 102 A.D. year, Trajan resumes his offensive even more powerfully, traverses the whole Muntenia Region reaching Bran’s mountainous defile, where, in spite of Dacians’ desperate yet heroic efforts, Decebalus is being defeated. As a result of the following „Peace Treaty”, the proud King was now to face some important territorial losses, among those the Banat Region, Hatsegului Zone, Oltenia Region and Southern „chunks” from both Muntenia and Moldavia. Back in Rome, the „Eternal City”, a triumphant Emperor Trajan would be granted the honorary title of „DACICUS” ( in Latin, „DACIA’S CONQUEROR”) by the Senate and would take care, afterwards, to consolidate his new „DANUBE WALL” with plenty of additional military forces. It is also assumed that, between the years 103-105 A.D., with the reputed Syrian-born architect Apollodorus from Damascus’ contribution, he would have ordered the construction of a legendary Stone Bridge over the Danube River, near Drobeta- today’s Turnu Severin. Apollodorus from Damascus was truthfully a genius, the greatest architect of his Era; it was still him to whom the project of „Trajan’s Colums” in Rome, depicting through numerous spiralled bas-relief aspects from the Two Dacian Campaigns (101-102 A.D., respectively 105-106 A.D.), would be later assigned. He is said to have even written a book, detailing the Bridge’s construction technique that had been used towards its masterful achievement, book that would have, alas, been lost for posterity… Nevertheless, its content appears familiar to a Roman historian, Dio Cassius, though this one doesn’t bother to do more than mainly describing in detail the Bridge’s aspect. Generally, every bridge’s great architectural complex bears always some hidden symbolistic within, usually a significant testimony of as many courageous, perpetual human efforts directed to do away with obstacles which „Mother Nature” so oftenly lays out on our Life’s paths. A bridge’s main purpose is to facilitate the communication bonds’ safety, between one shore and another… Yet, the so-called „Apollodorus’ masterpiece” looks to have actually been meant to ease our country’s robbing, the Dacian people’s subjugation and subsequently falling down into slavery, to say nothing about facilitating the merge of no less than 14 % from our sacred territories with this opressive, geographically amalgamated Roman Empire… Facts which are still shown, by some of our „historians”, as being absolutely necessary to a noble, „CIVILIZING PROCESS” purpose, intended from the Romans’ side. And if such naked agression, robbing, humiliation, slavery can still be depicted by these like some „civilizing process”, why shouldn’t we name Russian Bolsheviks „civilizers” as well, for they have also „civilized” us intensively through thelasthalf-century, just enough to leave us brain-washed and poorer than ever… A same approach would go for… Adolf Hitler himself and his Nazi fellows, who, after finding out we were „hesitating” to join World War II ‘s already belligerant forces on their side, had quickly „civilized” us through „generously” distributing some of our country’s territories to neighbours: namely, Transylvania to fascist Hungary, their ally, Bessarabia and Bukovina to their still „friends-to-be” Russians, a Southern region called „the Quadrilater” to Bulgarians, compelling thus (what was left of) Romania to become „friendly” to the „civilizers”. Yet, even nowadays, some still grumble at our turning weapons’ act performed against Germans back then, in August 1944!…
Trajan’s Second, and final military campaign versus the heroic King Decebalus was going to start in the summer of year 105, A.D., when (again!) the Roman Emperor in person arrives at Drobeta-Turnu Severin,ready for war. It looks necessary to open, here, a brief parenthesis, so as to mention that, meanwhile, a failed assassination attempt against Trajan himself had happened in Rome. Should the outcome of an ultimately „successful” coup have changed, in any ways, our life-style, our contemporary Destiny?… Would we have looked, somehow, differently?… Would we have spoken another language?… All these questions will remain, forever, unanswered.
Let’s resume our narration by going back to the Roman Armies whom, rather longing for all the Dacian gold and other riches than from some intimate need of acquiring fame, are now marching straight towards Sarmisegetuza while splitting themseves to follow three strategic directions: the first Legions’ group advances along the Cerna River’s valley (across such places where old Thracian legends had told about the Phoenix Bird itself coming to die from Northern Egypt; this mythical creature would hold in its beak an ancient Pelasgian emblem, while in its claws an Egg from the ashes of which, somewhere high on Cerna’s mountainous peaks, the Phoenix Bird was said to be born again). Therefore, the first Army group is able to get across Hatsegului zone and reach to the Dacian fortresses of Costesti, Blidaru and Piatra Rosie, which are totally destroyed. The second Legions’ group climbs, from Jiu River’s valley, up to the Roman military camp at Bumbesti, penetrating then within the Sureanu Massif through a successful breaking near Banita. Finally, the third Legions’ group, led by Trajan himself, marches from Drobeta through Sucidava and Romula, crosses Olt River’s valley up to „Castra Trajana” (nowadays, the Simbotin- Vilcea region), reaches Tilisca and, then, Capilna. All remaining Roman troops, starting their offensive from Moesia Inferior, pass through Bran, Bratocea and Oituz.
A decisive battle for SARMISEGETUZA REGIA would take place, however, only at the beginning of 106 A.D. ‘s summer, with numerous, veteran Roman Legions, having plenty of campaign experience, involved in the assault; among them, „ADRIUTIX” the II-nd and „FLAVIA FELIX” the IV-th, enforced also by a detachment („vexillatio”, in Latin) from the VI-th Legion „FERRATA”. The desperate Dacian fighters succeed in pushing back a first attack, but Romans manage then to destroy the fortress’ sole pipeline cutting thus Dacia’s capital short of water supply. Soon afterwards the whole fortress is set on fire, whereas Romans break in and destroy almost the entire fortification line, including savagely cutting off each pillar on the Holy Premise’s Sanctuary and killing old Vezina, Decebalus’ Great Priest. Still, the war rages on, for many warriors had succeeded to escape through a secret passage outside Sarmisegetuza, at the last moment. Unfortunately, because of Bacilis’ treason (namely, a former Dacian King’s counselor), the Romans would be able to find DECEBALUS’ THESAURUS, that had been carefully hidden UNDER SARGETIA RIVER’ S BED (as its flowing waters had been deviated while burrying the treasure). This immense hoard would be later estimated, by Jerome Carcopino, to include no less than 165,500 kilos of gold and 331,000 of silver. A last fight with the Dacian King’s Army remains would be held at Porolissum (or Moigrad).
Not being afraid of Death, and even laughing at it had longtime been a most essential Thraco-Dacian character feature, deeply rooted within every warrior’s spirit. That’s why it has been said they were going towards Death happier than on any other journey, by knowing it was the only proper way to acceed their God Zamolxis’ Underworld Kingdom and be among the other heroes enjoying a body and soul’s complete immortality, granted to them by the same Supreme God. Whereas the „Bravehearted” King Decebalus, surrounded now by only a hand of resolute fighters,was retreating through mountain hidden passes and virgin forests on the horse’s gallop, still hoping to reach unoccupied lands from where to assemble a new Army and start the avenging battle, he would be ambushed by the Roman cavalry on pursuit, leaded by a Decurion named Tiberius Claudius Maximus. Since the Zamolxian Cult was not only tolerating, but yet praising and promising other-world rewards to suicide, as final means of relief for the ones worstly striked fate, after a last, fierce struggle Decebalus’ faithfuls take their own lives, one by one. And, as Roman horsemen are also ready to capture him, the ill-fated Dacian King in jeopardy fulfils, in his turn, an untainted Destiny by killing himself. Thus, instead of making DECEBALUS a life-long prisoner in a public cage, the invaders were only able to cut off the „DEAD LION” ‘s head and right hand, in order to show them in Rome. His GREAT DEATH SCENE is one of the most impressive bas-reliefs, to be long remembered, on „Trajan’s Column”.
We have been ultimately crushed, defeated, but… IN NO WAY EXTINGUISHED AS A NATION! We may be proud to have had Decebalus!! What about Emperor Trajan?!… What might we have in common with he latter?! That’s still left to be seen in the future!

DECEBALUS’ RESIDENCE
Motto: „Whoever longs for a Master, Servant is to be called.”

The World’s History seems, at times, strange and still extremely controversial. Around the year 1574, a Spanish monk, named Alphonso CIACCONE, was depicting in premiere APOLLODORUS FROM DAMASCUS’ SCULPTED BAS-RELIEFS ON TRAJAN’S COLUMN IN ROME, that deal with scenes from the above named Emperor’s two military campaigns versus Dacian Land (101-102 A.D., followed by 105-106 A.D.).
It looks, indeed, odd that precisely them, ROMANS, didn’t leave any written testimonies on the Stone Column, a true landmark of Antique culture, just them who used to write plenty about anything and anybody. And it would be the same Spaniard who deserves credit as the first to have ever established that all Column’s bas-reliefs refer themselves to these two dramatic wars, between the Imperial Rome and Romanian people’s forefathers (should we quote from historian Radu Florescu’s works, page 11). Here follows Father Ciaccone’s accurate description of the first scene on Trajan’s Column, whereas this monk had come to be highly accustomed to Italian realities’ major aspects within XVI-th century (with respect to Professor Dr. N. Copoiu’s work- „Decebalus’ Palace”): „Decebalus’ Residence was a magnificent palace, adorned with columns and portraits, probably situated on the Danube’s River Northern shore and which Emperor Trajan would occupy afterwards, while giving orders to be preserved all its Royal furniture.The moment may have represented a peak moment during the temporary „Peace Treaty”, concluded in 102 A.D. between Trajan and Decebalus. Along the Palace’s upper esplanade, a presumed statue of King Decebalus himself could be seen, unless the sculpture might have as well represented one of his great predecessors, being dressed up in the Dacian specific national costumation. The Palace’s main gate was thought to face Danube River: on its fronton were shown three completely naked teen-agers, each holding a lighting torch. The one in the middle had his forefinger and right arm lifted up, carrying the torch with his left hand while displaying two relics in his right one. Those last sculptures might be considered as images of the so called „LARS”, NAMELY DIVINITIES WHO WERE TO INDICATE, WITHIN OLD DACIAN MYTHOLOGY, WHAT PERSON SUPERVISED THE TAKING CARE OF HOUSEHOLD AND WHO WAS „IN CHARGE” OF GUARDING IT. Apparently, nothing inside a residence could be concealed from these minor „domestic Gods”, since they were thought to permanently owning fire and light elements, whereas being extremely faithful to their House’s residents. The last character feature was artistically expressed through the „Lars” risen finger.
This brand new description would contravene, of course, to what we have been taught in communist schools for decades… Most of us always believed ancient Dacian people to equivalate some kind of savage and primitive peasants, supposedly living inside earth-built huts, whereas having, as a fact, numerous large Gold mines around; yet, as they say, who had to wait for an arrival of „civilizing Romans”, led by „our forefather” Trajan himself, in order to „acceed” the Ancient World’s „elite societies”. „Civilizers” being actually Roman mercenary troops who, during even their first year of staying on our conquered territory chunks, were to become „famous” not only for having stolen King Decebalus’ insidered as „promoters of social progress” by a wave of irresponsible historians… Him, Emperor Trajan, was to take posthumous credit for „civilizing” us in a similar way that was, centuries later, applied by the foreign Phanariot rulers (N.B.: the „Phanar” used to be a borough in Middle Age Istambul, well known during the times of Turkish Empire’s expansion since its „residents”, mostly of Greek descent, were competing in raising money to offer the Sultan in „exchange” for the Crown of some Vassal-state; once chosen as Kings, they would push hard to rob the respective country as much as possible while sending huge annual sums of money back to the Sultan, usually until somebody else was named as successor and the disgraced Phanariot had to be „discharged” and… strangled by official Turkish envoys), Hohenzollerns (most notable, among others, King Carol the second), Fascists or the well known Russian thugs… Each of these, in their turn, have forced themselves to „civilize” us better than their predecessors, leaving behind no regrets yet only sorrow, an awful poverty and unconceivable sufferings to the unfortunate, local Romanian population.
Why is it so, that people alike „our historians” don’t seem to grasp that „WHOEVER LONGS FOR A MASTER, SERVANT IS TO BE CALLED”??… Should such so called „History-makers” have become totally oblivious to take a glance at the above beautiful, and also profound interpretation of Trajan’s Column very first scenes? Of course, it might nevertheless be possible that the Spanish monk’s hypothesis proves in the end wrong, but still, in order to do away with any mistaken assumption, one must first try to make sure it becomes known and, afterwards, to effectively provide evidence of it being wrong. The specific image from Trajan’s Column of which I’m talking about is registered under number 231 inside Ciaccone’s album, while appearing as 357-th along the Romanian historian couple Florescu-Miclea’s elaborated Column bas-reliefs analysis. These two gentlemen, to be both considered reputed professionals, „hold tight”in considering the scene shows EMPEROR TRAJAN’S FIRST CAMPAIGN EMBARKMENT, AT THE ANCORA HARBOR, on his way to Dacia and having both his sister, Marcia, and wife Plotina at his side (whereas the same representation might be, with much higher probability in our acception, of NAKED STATUES OF THE THREE „LARS”, DOMESTIC DACIAN GODS OF HOUSEHOLD we were talking about at the beginning of this section).
There were many hypotheses regarding Column scenes’ most appropriate meanings, and many more are surely still to come ahead in the future, but only one thing carries its „rock-solid”, long-lasting significance through Eternity: within the boundaries of a SUPER-RICH country, especially among gold fields and precisely the way Dacia was famed to be back then, it looks very plausible that its top local leaders would have enjoyed both lives and… MANSIONS, or PALACES able to make jealous even the
subsequent, „civilized” Kings or Emperors from later-period Europe!